안녕하세요. 오랜만에 뵙겠습니다. 중국 코디 임성우입니다.
이번 포스팅은 동아시아연구원에서 발표한 2015년 5월 미중관계 브리핑입니다.
5가지의 항목으로 나누어 설명하고 있는데요, (번역이 잘되었는지는 모르겠지만... ^^ 중요하다고 생각하는 내용에 대해서는 간략하게 번역하여 정리하였습니다.)
남중국해에 대한 중국의 입장 (중국의 영해를 수호하기 위한 노력을 마다하지 않을 것 vs 미국은 항해의 자유를 계속적으로 지속시킬 것)/
무역에서의 우위를 점하기 위한 양국의 노력/
중동 문제 해결에 대한 중국과 미국의 인식 차이 (중국: 평화로운 해결, 직접 개입은 피해야 한다는 것을 강조 vs 미국: 외교를 중요시하지만, 군사적 개입의 빈도를 늘려가고 있음)/
국방 강화에 대한 중국의 입장 (중국, 미국 양국은 한반도 비핵화를 포함한 비핵화에 대한 공감을 이끌어냈으며, 사이버 안보에 대한 인식을 같이 하고 있습니다. 중국의 2015년 국방백서에 의하면 '중국의 평화로운 발전에 필요한 안보를 위한 국방력을 강화할 것'이라고 밝혔으며, 러시아와 미국 간의 군사적 협력을 지속할 것이라고 주장하였습니다.) /
인권 문제에 대한 의견 교환
을 주된 내용으로 브리핑을 하고 있습니다. 첨부된 파일은 이 문제들에 대한 요약 이후에 해당 이슈에 대한 각 국의 브리핑, 신문 기사들을 수록하고 있는 보고서입니다. 한 번 자세히 읽어보시면 좋을 것 같습니다. 자세한 사항은 http://www.eai.or.kr/type_k/panelView.asp?bytag=p&catcode=+&code=kor_report&idx=13961&page=1 를 참고하시면 되겠습니다. (첨부 파일의 용량이 크다고 해서 업데이트가 안되네요. 위의 링크로 들어가면 원문 파일을 받을 수 있으니 한 번 읽어 보시기 바랍니다.
다음은 홈페이지에 올라온 간략한 요약입니다.
Disagreements over China’s land reclamation project in the South China Sea and China’s issuance of a new Defense White Paper have shifted the attention in U.S.-China relations from the economic arena and discussions surrounding the AIIB to military and territorial soverignty issues. The upcoming U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue and Chinese President Xi Jinping’s imminent visit to Washington in September will give the two countries ample opportunities to work out their differences over the next several months, but during the month of May the two great powers were pressing their individual views of international norms and laws. Summarized below are five key issues highlighted by the U.S. and China over the previous month as tracked by the UCR Briefing.
Simmering Tensions in the South China Sea
China has been stepping up its rhetoric and has made clear its position regarding its territorial claims in the South China Sea. China has also made clear it will continue to protect its national security by patrolling the waters and air space surrounding its claimed territory. Although China has urged the U.S. to refrain from choosing sides in the territorial disputes in the South China Sea, the U.S. is actively seeking maintenance of the freedom of navigation in an area crucial to international trade routes through a constant U.S. Navy presence. The U.S. also continues to question the legality of China’s land reclamation project in the area and does not recognize China’s claim to territorial waters around these land reclamation projects. While both countries agree the situation needs to be solved peacefully, this is about the only thing they seem to agree on leaving many questions on how the two nations will move forward with regards to the territorial disputes in the South China Sea.
The Race to Set Trade Norms
In light of the emerging Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the U.S. and China have been head-to-head for dominance in the global market. Both sides have explicitly stated that it is imperative to grow their respective economies and maintain their economic profile in order for them to “set the rules” of global trade. The U.S. is facing tough partisan-induced gridlock in Congress, which is delaying the process of them joining any global trade agreement, while China has seen some economic growth through increased exports during the second quarter of 2015. In addition, the U.S. continued its sarcastic criticism of the AIIB as Secretary of State Kerry welcomed the institution to the world scene as long as it upholds “high quality standards,” and “genuine multilateral decision making.”
Different Approaches to the Crisis-riddled Middle East
The United States has taken proactive measures to mediate and resolve conflicts in the Middle East and Africa with their chief interests centered on the impending Iran Nuclear Deal, the civil war and the humanitarian crisis in Syria, the growing power of ISIL, and the civil war in Yemen. While the U.S. hopes that diplomacy will prevail, especially in the case of Yemen, the U.S. has become more aggressive in its efforts with an example being the continued military involvement in eradicating ISIL. China, on the other hand, commends any actions that deter violence, but has choosen to support efforts in individual countries ranging from Egypt to Afghanistan to resolve their own domestic issues rather than becoming directly involved. However, China has taken more proactive measures in expanding its reach in Africa by concluding a treaty with Djibouti that may establish China’s first foreign military base.
China Serves Notice on Direction of Military Development
Both countries have openly been in support for nuclear disarmament and to undertake a more responsible and transparent nuclear policy that is in alignment with the NPT. Furthermore, the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula remains a relentless obstacle that the U.S. and China are attempting to resolve. The U.S. Department of State and China’s Ministry of National Defense have both addressed the serious emerging issue of cyber security and propose more “cyberspace situation awareness” and “cyberspace defense,” in addition to preventing further invasive attacks. Yet the biggest news of the month with regards to military and security relations involved the release of China’s 2015 Defense White Paper. In the document, China stated that it would continue to develop its military “as a security guarantee for China’s peaceful development,” and would seek to continue military cooperation with both the U.S. and Russia.
Exchange of Criticism on Human Rights Issues
U.S. criticism of China’s human rights record is nothing new and the U.S. again this month urged the Chinese government to release imprisoned lawyer Pu Zhiqiang. Secretary of State John Kerry also made declarations calling for open access to the internet that were not directed specifically at China, but certainly poked at China’s censorship of the internet within its borders. China on the other hand lodged protests over a report published by the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom that contended Chinese guarantees of religious freedom were weak, and then highlighted the UN Human Rights Council Report on the U.S. which provided advice on issues should as excessive use of force by law enforcement personnel and racial discrimination that currently plague the U.S. domestic scene. Indeed neither side can be declared free of human rights violations and both sides will continue to seek to set international norms on human rights and a host of other issues rather than be reactive to the other as both the U.S. and China manuever to improve its international position...(Continued)
Time Period: May 1 ~ May 31
1. U.S. – China Bilateral Relations: The U.S. Speaks of the Need for Cooperation ahead of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue; China Criticizes the U.S. Tendency to Make Allies and Enemies
2. Economic Relations: The U.S. and China Compete to Define International Trade Rules
3. Military and Security Relations: The U.S. Works to Curtail Cyberattacks and Nuclear Proliferation; China Releases its Defense White Paper
4. Human Rights and Humanitarian Issues: The U.S. Urges Global Respect for Human Rights and Attention to Refugee Issues; China Continues to Highlight its Aid to Nepal and Criticizes U.S. Human Rights Record
5. Climate Change and Environmental Issues: Both the U.S. and China Focus on Domestic Pollution Controls and Seek International Cooperation on Climate Initiatives
6. Asia Pacific Issues: The U.S. Continues to Strengthen its Alliances in Asia and Focuses Specifically on Improving U.S.-Japan-ROK Tri-lateral Relations; China Continues Criticism of Japan on Historical Issues while Simultaneously Searching for Areas of Coopearation
7. Korean Peninsula: The U.S. and China Both Push for the Resumption of Talks to Resolve the North Korean Nuclear Problem
8. Middle East and Africa Issues: The U.S. Gropes for Solutions to Several Crises in the Middle East; China Hints at Possibility of First Overseas Military Base in Djibouti
9. Sovereignty and Territorial Disputes: The U.S. and China Exchange Volleys Over the Legaility of China’s Land Reclamation Efforts in the South China Sea while Simultaneously Calling for a Peaceful Resolution