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Understanding Mass Media and the Importance of Media Literacy

After Studying this Chapter, you will able to:

1. Discuss the differences Between interpersonal communication and mass communication

2. Explain why an unorthodox definition of mass communication makes the term, especially relevant in today's media environment

3. Explain the meaning and importance of culture's relationship with the mass media

4. Analyze the ways in which the mass media affect our everyday lives

5. Explain what the term media literacy means

6. List the key principles involved in becoming media literate

7. Discuss the importance of developing media literacy skills in the classroom and beyond

8. Explain current and future trends in mass communication

 

Media Today

Your TV ringing

The first time you saw apps on an iPhone or other smartphone, you might have said cool or I want that about virtually everything. The nearly 134,000 free and paid programs include ways to play games react to news find out where your friends a retweet to them find a cheap airline ticket lean when your plane is leaving search for restaurants watch sports view a television show and a whole lot more.

It's certainly an exercising time to study mass communication. None of the activities described above could have been attempted on a telephone just a few years ago and but now they have become standard for many mobile phones. The developments raise questions about the impact that theses and other technologies will have on us. Our society and the contents of TV. Movies video games, music,newspaper, magazines websites advertisements.

Considers the mass media menu that Americans have today. Instead of three of our TV channels most Americans receive more than fifty and a substantial more than fifty and a substantial number receive 150 and more. Radio in urban areas delivers dozens of stations, satellite radio brings in hundreds more and music streaming on the web some times called internet radio is carried out by countless broadcast and numbered entities.

Desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, e-readers, video game consoles, CD players, and DVDs have brought far more channels into our lives than ever before, so has the internet allowing us to interact with entertainment news and information from all over the nation and the world.

Research indicates that Americans spend and enormous amount of time with mass media thinks about your own media habits. How close do you come to the average thirty two hours a week about 4.5 hours a day of television that American on the traditional TV set as well as online? What about radio? Studies suggest that Americans listens to around fifteen hours a week of radio in the regular broadcast mode, Via satellite channels or from their online feeds Do you do that we do you instead listen recorded music on your iPod or on your magazine you spend reading books, newspaper and magazines Data show that on average Americans spend about eight a week one or another of these both their printed versions and their websites

just a few years ago, media such as televsion,radio,books ,and newspapers seemed pretty separate,It was clear what continents seemed pretty was clear what content from each medium looked or sounded like and it would have been follish to suggest that newspaper articles and televisin programs would show up on the same chanel.but because of the rise of computer techonoligies that we will explore in the coming pages this follishmness is exactly what ahs happned the access the internet gives us to content form different types of media is part of a process called convergence, Convergence takes placce when content that has tradtionally been confimed to one medium appears on multiple media Channels.

The media of mass communication are an integral part of our life occurring in a  wide variety of settings in this chapter, we will explore and defined communication, media, and culture, and we will consider how the relationship among them affect and the world in which we live, We will also consider why the term massscommunication remains relevant in the twenty first century, contrary to what some writers say, in fact the changes taking place in the media system actually make a rethought and redefined version of the term more important than ever.

 

6p

Introducing Mass Communication

To understand why some writes to suggest that the term Mass communication doesn't connect to what's going on in today's world. We have to look at how they earn has traditionally been used. Over the past hundred years. People who wrote about mass communication tended to relate it to the size of the audience. That made a lot of sense back then. From the mild nineteenth century onward new technologies such as high speed from the mid nineteenth century onward new technologies such as high speed newspaper presses radio. Movies and television provided radio, movies, and television provided access to the huge masses of people. Not only were those audiences very large, they were dispersed geographically quite diverse that is made up of different types of people, and typically anonymous to the companies that created the material. The essential reason newspapers, radio, television and other such media were considered different from other means of communication had to do with the size and composition of the audience.

This perspective on mass communication worked well until recently when the key aspects of the traditional definition of mass communication as reach huge, diverse groups no longer fit, the reason is that the arrival of media Channel. Including the growing number of radio and TV stations the rise of the VCR the multiplication of cable networks and the rise of the web led to audience fragmentation that is as people watched new media channels do not necessarily individually reach large numbers of people. The masses, some  writers suggested that we can abandon the term mass communication.

+

Audience fragmentation the process of dividing audience members into segments based on backgrounds and lifestyle in order to send them messages targeted to their messages targeted to their specific characteristics.

Mass Production Process the industrial process that creates the potential for reaching millions, even billions of diverse anonymous people at around the same time

 

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However, the view in this book is that mass communication is still a critically important part of society As we will see what really separates mass communication form other forms of communication is not the size of the audience, it can be large or small Ratehr what makes mass communication special is the way the content of the communication messages is created.

<ass communication is carried out by organization working togetehr in industries to produces and circulate a wide rage of content from entertaiiment to news to education materials it is this industrsal mas production process that creates the portential for reaching meillions even billions of diverse anonymoust people at around the sametime and it is the industrsial nature of the process for exmple the vairious companies that work togeteh within the television or internet industries that makes amass communication different form other forms of communication venen when the aduience is relatvely small and even one to one.To heldp you understand how mass communication relates to otehr forms of communication lets take a closer look.

 

The Elements of Mass Communication

Communication is a basic of human life. In general, The Wold Communication refers to people interacting in ways that at least one of the parties involved understands as message collection of symbols that appears purposefully organized to those sending or receiving them.

When you signal your needs or thoughts to others. The signals you send are both verbal and nonverbal when Jane shouts excitedly to her friends Jack and Leaps with joy into his arms after she wins a tennis match, That's a form of communication It's likely that Jack Whose arm, she almost broke realize that she wants to tell them something people who study communication realizes that she wants to tell him something people who study communication would typically call the interaction just described interpersonal communication. A form that involves two or three individuals signaling to each other using their voices, facial and hand gestures and other signs, even clothes that they use to convey meaning when you talk to your parents about your coursework, discuss a recent movie over dinner with friends or converse with your professor during her office hours you are participating in the interpersonal form of communication.

 

+The traditional motto of the audience as a large mass of anonymous individuals has given way beneath the fragmenting of audiences to reveal smaller specially targeted media  medic audiences made up of individuals who are segmented by any number of characteristics.

+industrial matter what distinguishes mass communication from other forms of communication is the industrialized or mass production process that is involved in creating the message material process creates the potential for reaching billions of diverse anonymous people simultaneously.

+communication refers to people interacting in ways that at least one of the parties involved understands as the message

+messages collections of symbols that appear purposefully organized, meaningful to those sending or receiving them.

+interpersonal communication a form of communication that involves two or three individuals signaling to each other suing their voice, facial and hand gestures and other signs even clothes that they use to convey meaning.

 

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Meditated interpersonal communication can be described as interperosnal communication that by a medimum part of a technoical system that helps in the intrassmissiion distribution or reception of messages, it helps communication take place when senders and receivers are not face to face the internet is an example of medium as are the radio,CD,televeisiion and DBD(note that the term medium is singular it refers to one techonoligical vehicle for communication the plural is media) When you writes a thanks you note to your grandmorther send an eail to your graduate teacing assistnat, or clal a friend on the phone you are participating in the mediated form a interpersonal communication.

Although interpersonal, mediated interpersonal, and mass communication have their differences they have a central silimrality they involve message eight major elements are involved in every interaction that involves message these elements are the source, encoder, transmitter, channel, receiver, decoder, feedback, and noise

Source the Source is the originatior of the message, in mass communication the ousrce is an organization sucha s a company not a single personal forexample, think of the Jon stwenart deliviering his version of the news on comedy coentral's the in the paepr he as an individual would be a source but when you watch ihim do his monologue on the daily show joh in no longer the source that's because behind hhim is an oragnization thati s crating the news satire for him to present USre,John but the wrting team of the Daily show helped him write the script produced and editied the videos he introduces and perprared his set for the broadcast,Moreover the photos and clips he satilized sometimes come form news firms suchas ABC News so Jon is rally just the most visible representtativre of an organizational source.

 

+meditated interpersonal communication a specialized type of interpersonal communication that is assisted by a device such a s a pen or pencil a computer or a telephone.

+medium part of a technical system that helps in the transmission, distribution or reception of message

+source the originator of the message which may be a person several people or an organization.

 

Culture Today

 Where Does the Term: Media come from?

Until the Roaring the 1920s to most Americans a medium was fortune teller or palm reader not a publication and as for media well, there was no such things. The term media had been just an obscure Latin plural of the world "medium'

Then came modern advertising and a sense of media that had nothing to do with psychics advertisers began to speak of placing ads in different media.

The original means of mass communication were printed magazine and newspaper and their collective name was already in place publication, then radio and television were added to the mix and the term publication would not stretch to fit, Needing term that would encompass all their means of communication writes borrowed media from the advertising people and have used it ever since to accommodate these and even newer means of communication such s internet.

9pEncoding Encoding takes aplce when a source translates a message in anticipation of tis transmission to a receiver, When the source is a person,encoding goes on inside the brain.When the surce is an organization,encoding takes aplce during the creation of the message for example the daily show's creators prepare the program with the knolwedge that it will be recorder on a stage for presentation to a cable audience during a preset time for a particcular number of minutes on a prticular day, these basic realtities are among the many factors that shpae the way they prepare their prgoram for tis transmission.

Transmitting, The Transmitter performs the physical activity of actually sending out the message, e Imagine an employee meeting employee meeting with his supervisor to apologize for missing a day meaningful now picture this same employee apologizing to his supervisor by email. In this case, a second type of transmitter operates along with his body the computer which turns the clocks from his keyboard into digital signals that travel across the internet into the supervisor's digital mailbox.

In mass communication, however transmission is too complex to be accomplished by an individual or even a few people. That is because transmission involves distsriubutin the material to several locations and presenting the material, that is exhibiting it, at those locations instead of a few individuals a number of organizations usually large ones are typically involved in the process.

Think of our Daily show example again. When Jon reads the script on the daily show his vocal cords transmit the world's into a microphone. however transmission of Jon on Comedy Central involves a number of future stepms First the show is snet to a satellite compnay that the networkduses to send its programs to cable ㅆㅍ systems to a satellite compnay that the neetwork uses to send its program to cable TV systems around the country, The cable system, which temselves are complex organizations receive those message and send the to head end transmission centers that they own, these centers send out the problem throught coaxical cables tht eventually connect to televsiion set in location them,bars, hotels where subscribers have paid to receive the signal. In this way millions of people around the country can watch the Daily show at the same time.

The created and transmission of mass media of news articles, television program and recorded music for example, are the result of decisions and activities of many people working together in companies that interact with other companies

 

CHANNEL All communication whether mediated or not takes place, though Channel Channels are the pathways through which the transmitter sends all feature of the message whether they involve sight, sound, smell or touch when a man on the street walks up to you and shouts at you in a way that you can hardly understands the channels is the air through which the sound waves move from the mass vocal cords if your roommates send you a text message asking to meet up for lunch the channel is the elctromganetic frequency band through which the message travels.

RECEIVER As suggested above, the receiver is the person or organization  that gets the message sometimes the source message will reach its intended receiver, altogether, but even will reach its reaches another receiver altogether, but even if someone other than the intended receiver, receiver the message, communication has still taken places say for wall only brad will see it turn over only Brand will see it, TUrns out thought that Brad's privacy setting are such that everyone in the world can see what you wrote. Oops. Even if it turns out that Brad didn't go to his Facebook page and read the message you sent him, but insisted his girl friend KeiKo did he episode can still be considered mediated interpersonal communication your message was encoded transmitted via your keystrokes to the computer and internet service provider sent through the Channel of the internet decoded by the receiver (although not the one you intended) and received.

Decoding before a receiver can make sense of a source's message the transmitted impulse must be decoded converted to signs that the brain can perceive as meaningful.

 

+Channels the pelvis through which the transmitter sends all feature of the message, whether they involve sight, sound, smell, or touch.

+Receiver the person or organization that gets the message.

+Decoding the process by which the receiver translates the source's thoughts and ideas so that they have meaning.

+the Broadcasting of The Daily Show is a complex process that involves writers, producers, editors, and camerament, not to mention the cable channel comedy Central.

11p Decoding is the process by which the receiver translates the source's thoughts and ideas so that they have meaning. In Internet they have meaning. In interpersonal communication the decoder is the human brain. When two people communicate via mediated interpersonal communication, however, for example, over the telephone, e the electrical impulses that travel throughout the phone lines must be decoded into sound waves before they can be decoded by the brain.  In interpersonal communication the decoder is the human brain. When two people communicate via meditated interpersonal dommunidqtion, however, for example, over the telephone, the electric communication, Feedback. Feedback occurs when the receiver responds to the message with what the sender perceivers as a message, When Keiko Your friend's girlfriend tells you I never between the two ends when one of them sends no more feedback to the other (the person walks away the parties hang up the phone)

In mass communication feed back from all the receivers is often impossible because of the number of people involved.(Think of the millions of people watching a TV program)) Even When feedback does happen, the people in the organization who created the message in the first place will generally receive your message.

Consider the following comparison. You meet Jon Stewart in a movie line and have a leisurely conversation with him about current events in NewYork City, where he lives. Jon nods in response to your comments and answers your questions. By contrast a week later you see a satirical piece about NewYork City on the Daily Show that angers you. To  complain you phone comedy Central in NewYor to speak to Stewart or a producer you get an operator who will politely take down your 12p comments. Send you a voicemail. A service that will record them or suggest that you provide feedback through the program's website if you write to Jon Stewart or one complaint for production executives will intercept it That is or mass media organization The Daily show gets thousands of letters and emails and its principals are too busy to attend to all audience letters and phone calls themselves.

Noise Noise is an environmental, mechanical and cinematic sound in the communication situation that interferes with the delivery of the message, environmental noise comes from the setting where the source and receiver are communicating mechanical  noise comes from the medium target which the communication is taking place. Say there is static on the phone that would be mechanical noise that would add to environmental noise.

A hypothetical comparison of interpersonal and mass communication will help to explain the differences in sender transmitter feedback and noise. Meet Antwann Andrews, A self employed independent insurance agent, Using a list of potential clients that the has compiled from friends acquaintances. And other clients Antwwann Andrews a self employed independent insurance agent, USing a list of potential clients that he has compiled from friends acquaintances. And other clients Antwaan sends postal or email letters to ten people a night for two months to tell them about his service, EH develop his sales pitch himself and tailors it to each person each note contains his name postal address phone number and email. Address along with the assurance that he will reply quickly to their messages.

Note that Anwann's audience the receiver of his letter and email. Messages are limited in number by the people he can learn about from others and contact personally. Note. To-do that any feedback goes straight to Antwann. To that any feedback goes straight to Antwaan. Potential customers either speak to them directly or they leave a message on his voicemail. Or email. On either speak to him directly or they leave a message on his voice Note that Antwanna's audience the receivers of his letters and email messages is limited in number by the people he can learn about from others and contact personally. Note too that any feedback goes Striagith to Antwaan. Potential customers either speak to him directly or they leave a message on his voice mail Its plain din the neck, he says, but it generally works OK and he doesn't want to spend upgrading his service.

Contrast Antwaan's mediated interpersonal works with mass communication activities of Satety Trust morale One of the Insurance companies Antwaan Represents. Safety trust me has mounted its own campaign to help agent like antwaann safety, trust has recently hired an advertising anarchy and public relations agency to attract potential clients who fit the following profile young parents with a combined income of over 75,000 a year members of the advertising and public relations teams have come up with a multimedia marketing plan built around the twin themes of safety and trust their plan involves.

+Noise an environmental, mechanical and semantic sound in the communication situation that interferes with the delivery of the messages. Environmental noise comes from the setting where the source and receiver are communicating, setting where the source and receiver are communicating.Mechanical noise comes from  the medium through which the communication is taking place. Semantic noise involves language that one or more of the participants doesn't understand.

 

+

Creating commercials and airing them on two or three TV series that rate highly with young married couples

Creating print ads and buying space for those ads in upscale newspapers and magazines.

Attempting to place safety Trust's young and photogenic president on NBC's Today show and ABC's good Morning America to speak about new government insurance regulations

Paying a custom magazine firm to create and mail. A glossy new magazine for young, upscale Safety Tracy clients

Advertising during a VH1 cable series.

Paying and internet advertising company to send an email. Ad to 30,000 people on a list the company bought by individuals who fit the profile and who have

 

13p In recent there has been a good deal of popular and academic internet concerning the role that fake news or entertainment shows are playing in the journalistic landscape. Such shows take a satirical or humorous approach to political affairs and world news. The Daily show with Jon Stewart and The Colbert Report are the two most prominent examples of informatinment shows in the United States.

There is some evidence to suggest that Americans and particularly young Americans are increasingly turning to infotainment shows as their primary news source a 2009 Rasmussen Report states that Nearly one third of Americans. Under the age of 40 say satirical news oriented television programs like the Colbert Report and the Daily Show with Jon Stewart are taking the place of traditional news outlets there is also evidence to suggest that turning tin to such  shows doe not negatively affect political knowledge A Pew Research Center report suggest is that regular viewers of the Daily show and the colber Report have among the highest levels of public knowledge for a substantial number of people. Then these programs help set the agenda about what public issues are important.

Jon Stewart, host of the Daily Show maintains that he is a fake news show and therefore does not need to live up to the journalists standard of objectivity and tough questioning of people in power of objectivity and toughtquestioningof people in power to which mainstream news outlets are often held.

Everything on the Daily show from the format to the host himself is designed to poke fun at the percied indequacies of the media industry in an appreance on CNN'sCrossfire Stewart chartised the hosts for their part in creating a media thearter instead of engaging in civilized discourse interestingly stewart sidesteps.

 His own role in creating this arena for vilized discourse nothing that his show is run on Comedy Central When the Cross file hosts asked why doesn't ask tougher questions when an important political figure appears on his show, Stewart countered:

If your idea of confronting me is that I don't ask hard hitting enough news questions we're in bad shape fellows.

Jon Stewart has never claimed to be a professional journalist Hoewever He does host a television show that reports on political and current affairs no matter how asarically. Moreover, many Americans turn to his show as their primary source for news and so for an agenda about what to attend to in the world beyond their immediate knowledge. In light of these facts some suggest he Should he be held to journalistic standard regarding the agenda, he sets for his audience. What do you think.

Sources: Remussen Nearly One Third of younger Amreicnas see Colbert Stewart As alternatives to traditional News outlets March 25,2009.

14p~ Indicated that they are interested about how to save money on insurance

Reworking a website where customers can learn about their plans and send responses to the company.

Note that although these messages reach millions of people. Getting feedback from them is difficult Typically feedback would include phone responses to an 800 number in the TV commercial and print ads, But this would probably include only a tiny percentage of the people who the message, Safetytrust might also pay a company conduct research to estimate the number of people who viewed the materials and what they thought about them

These methods would often yield feedback from potential customers. The safety Trust executive is particularly proud of the plan for the website, Because it customized the message encourages immediate feedback. The site changes its sales pitch and look based on information that the person types in on the site. For example, whenever the potential customer goes to the company's homepage at http//www.safetytrust.comthat person is asked a number of questions about their age. Salary martial status and educational background among other things based upon the potential customer's response and a acopmuters programs's evaluated of those responses, He or she will be able to view a custom tailored site, Helping Safety Trust to best explain its products and sell its services At the same time the feedback helps tailor the message so as to minimize semantic noise that might drive some potential customers away.

The additionally, users, website may choose to email Safety Trust at any time with questions, concerns or requests for more information. This feed back doesn't reach  a real giant at safety Trust, instead it is collected and analyzed daily by consumer response specialists who may eventually contract people who are good prospects. Their conversations may not be the careful discussions that individual agents like voice mail. Still Sfatey Trust finds that its approach is quite efficient as it can quickly weed out people who the company consider to be high insurance risks. But just in case a person who comes to the site wants to speak to an agent near his or her home, Safety, Trust has links to those of its agents who have websites Antwaan is one  of these agents with his own content and he finds that many of the best prospects who come to his home page are referred through the safety trust site.

With his much smaller operation Antwaan couldn't possibly do what safety Trust is doing with its website and feedback from prospective customers, in fact, even if he had thoughts on all Safety Trust's marketing activities.Antwaan could never implement them without adding enormously and unrealistically to his staff and overhead costs after all. Safety Trust a large insurance company with millions of dollars in its marketing budget, hired and advertising agency and a public relations agency to help it create its message to potential customers It also used large ornagizaions NBC, ABC, NH1, And an internet access firm to help distribute its messages.

The differences between mediated interpersonal and mass communication, then can be seen as a different between personal, hand crafted production on the one hand, and mass production on the other put another way safety TRusts's work is part of an industry process An industry is a grouping of companies that use technology to work together in a regularized way to produce and distribute goods and services it is this industrial approach that makes it possible for safety trust to get its message out to its intended audience.

 

+Industry a grouping of companies that use technology to work together in a regulated to produce and distribute goods and service.

Mass Media the Technological vehicle target which mass communication takes place note that the term mass medial is plural it refers to more than one vehicle the singular version is a mass medium.

Mass Outlets companies that send out messages via mass media Mass Communication Defined.

And so we come at last to the definition of mass communication that we have been building mass communication is the industrailized production and multiple distribution of message throught the chonological devices. THe industrial nature of the process is central to this definition of mass communication as hown in figure 1.3.As the definition suggests mass communication is carried out by mass medial industrieds thinksfor example of the movie industry in which many different companies from production studios to tilm providers to catering firms wokr too make and cirulate movies Mass Media are the techonological instruments for example newsprint news print the internet, televisions radio both traditional and satellite through which mass communication takes place. Mass Media Outlets are commpanies that send out message a mass media for example. Time magazine forxnews.com and the  NBC television network.

 

15p Mass communication's power allows media consumers to share the materials they are reading and listening to with millions of people. This sharing is made possible. Of course, because of the industrial nature of the activity and its Technology of production and distribution when complex organizations comprising many workers join together  to use the latest technology to produce media those organizations have the potential to distrubution the same message to huge numbers of people.

Consider the typical television broadcast of the Grammy Awards.The ceremony in which the recording industry honors its most successful talent, It is transmitted via satellite from Los Angels to broadcast television production facilities in NewYork then distributed live in every corner of the United States As well as in many parts of the world.

Or consider a typical presidential news conference it is covered by dozens of newspaper reporters and television and radio news crews snippets of the event will commonly end up confronting Americans around the country in many different forms during that day at the next on the national TV news or internet news and blog sites.On the local news in the morning papers and throughout the day on hourly radio news reports.

As a third and slightly different example, a mega hit film such as one of the Twilight movies. Millions of people around the world saw it in theaters within a few months is of its release in addition world of the movie's popularity sped around the globe as summit Entertainment it is U.S distributor and its distributor in many regions outside the United States revved up a publicity and advertising machine, it's peppered as many outlets as possible of the high octane action and had loppingdigital affects.

Twilight the presidential news conference and the Grammy Awards Represent only three examples of activities that happen all the time in industrialized countryside  such as the United States linking large numbers of people to share the same materials virtually instantly has become standard for the broadcast television.

 

16p

1. The source a media organization, creates a message in words and /or images often working with other organizations in its industry, it encoded the image for transmission (that is distribution) through a medium. Let's say that in this case the organization is a TV network news division the message is a news report and the media are both television and  website.

2. The electronic impulse travel from ground transmitters owned by the network of satellite (media channels) leased by it and from there to TV station (Mass Media outlets) around the country and the world. The station in turn, send the impulses to other transmitters that broadcast them torught the air another media channel to millions of televisions after the ITV transmission A version of the report is placed on the tv network website through high speed cable line.

3. The receivers are million of people who receive the electronic impulses on their TV sets more media The into Video and commentary which the viewers themselves decode as messages.

4. In many cases there is no response from viewers no feedback. in this example throught ,assume that several thousnad of these viewers later go out more about the repoert and participate in a poll. They are involved in feedback to the station on a delayed basis.

5. The responding individuals are now sources in medicated communication with an organization their individual messages are transmitted across the phone and cable lines to reach the TV network's websites.

6. Networked employees not those directly involved with the original news report or website discussions receiver the messages and send nsummariries of them to the news and designers the marketing staff uses advertisers of the involvement of some of the comments to alter the alter's look. The responses to the web activity and general audience interest in the topic executives in the news organization decided to air more their website way discussion about it in this way the feedback influences the network's mass communication activities.

Internet radio cable TV and statellite television industries just as significant is the sharing that takes place relative more slowly when enws papers magazine books movies billionoard and toeother media release their messages because of mass media indurstires and their abilities to mass produce medai content.  millions of people within the United States and around world can receive the same messages within a farily short time think about it hre are huge numbers of people who are physically spearted from one anotehr have no obvious relationship with one anotehr and most often are unknown to one anotehr yet on a daily basis they are watching the same news stories. Listening to the same music and reading same magazine articles.

 

17p Mass Media, Culture and Society How Do we Use the Mass Media in Our Daily lives?

People within the United States and around the world can receive the same message within a fairly short time. Think about it, here are huge numbers people who are physically separated from one another have no obvious relationphysically separated from one another have no obvious relationship with one another and most often are unknown to one another, yet one a daily basis they are watching the same news listening to the same music and reading the same magazine articles.

 

Mass Medial culture and Society. How Do we use the MAss Media in our Daily lives?

 

Mass Media materials speak to the most personal parts of our lives and connect to the owlrld beyond our private circumstances As a result mass medialindusitries are a major force in society into how people use the media and what they get out of them. Scholars have a fund that individuals adapt their use of mass media to their own particular need's Broadly, people use the media in four ways for enjoyment companionship surveillance interpretation lets examine these uses of one at a time.

Enjoyments desire enjoyments are a basis basic human urge, Watching a television program studying the bible finishes a newspaper cross ward puzzled networkment, companionship surveillance and interpretation lets examine these issues one at a time

Enjoyment the desire for enjoyment is a basic human urge Watching a television program studying the Bible is finishing a newspaper crossword puzzle Networking on Facebook. Or even reading an advertisement can bring this kind of gratification to many people.

News Stories daytime soap operas, sports and promoting sitcoms ignite everyday talk with friends, relatives, work colleagues and even strangers During the mid 1990s for example, many local television stations around the United Sates were advertising their meaning

18p Stars that they sometimes if they know well in a few publicized cases this feeling has gotten out of control. Leading individuals to stalk and even harm the media figures who were the objects of their adulation in 2009 for example a man was arrested for trying to get into a vehicle with American Idol host Ryan Seacrest while possessing a knifes A month later he was arrested for attempting to approach the star in his workplace. A judge therefore forbade him from coming within 100 yards of Seacrest his home, and places of employment.

SURVELLANCE SUVILLANCE users of the media employ to learn about what is happening in the world. We all do this every day, often without realizing it Do you turn on the radio or TV each morning to find out the weather?Do you check the stock listings to find out how your investments are faring?Have you read classified ads in print or online to look for a job. Concert tickets or used furniture?Have you ever called or logged on to Fandango or Moviefone to find out where and when a film is playing all these activities are illustrated using mass media for surveillance. Of course, our surveillance can be more global Many people media for surveillance, of course, our surveillance can be more global Many people are interested in knowing what is going on in the world beyond their immediate neighborhood. Did the flooding upstate destroy any houses? Will Congress raise taxes? What's going on with the negotiation for peace in the Middle East?

Interpretation Many of us turn to the Media to learn not only what is going on but also why and what, if any actions to take when people try to find reasons why things are happening, they are looking for interpretation, we may read newspaper editorials to understand the actions of national leaders and come to conclusions about our stand on an issue. We know that financial magazines such as Money and Barron's are written to appeal to people who want to understand how investment vehicles work and which ones to choose. And we are aware that libraries in How to topics ranging from raising children to installing a retaining wall to dying with dignity some people who are genuinely confused about some topics find mass media the most useful sources of answers Pre teens, for example, may want to understand why women and men behave romantically toward each other, but they may feel embarrassed to ask their parents, they may be quite open to different opinions in the Twillight films on Oprah in Justin Timberatke's music or in CosmoGirl Magazine about where sexual comes and what the appropriate behavior is.

But how do people actually use the explanations they get from the mess media/Researchers have found that the credibility people place in the postions that mass media take depends on the extent to which the individuals agree with the values. they find in theat content. For example, a person who is rotted in a religiously conservative approach to the Bible would not be likely to agree with a nature book that is based on the theory of evolution a political liberal would probably not be persuaded by the internpretations that poitically consevative magazines offer a bout ways to end poverty keep in mind however that in these examples these people would probably not search out such medial content to begin with.

Unless people have a good reason to confront materials that go against their values if they will be engagemegiing in a debate on the ideas for example, most people stayawayform meditate, do not reflect and reinforce their own beliefs value or interests and if they do come across materials that go against their values they tend to dismiss them as biased. 18p

 

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about the four uses that the four uses that people make of the mass media: the uses are not linked to any particular medium or genre. If we take television as an example we might be tempted to suggest that enjoyment comes from certain sitcoms or adventseries that companionship comes from soap operas that surveillance is achieved throught network and local news programs and that interpretation can be found in Sunday. morning political talks show such as meet the press as well as form daily talk frests such as Oparah and The view in fact we may divide many kinds of contetn in these ways Communication researches point out however that individuals can get just about any gratification. they are seeking from juts baout any program or any kind of mass media materails .

You might find for example that you use the nBNBC Nightly news for enjoyment surveillance and interpretation Enjoyment might come from the satisfaction of watching reporters familiar faces day after day is a little parasocial interaction working here? surveilnace might be satisfied with reports from different parts of the globe, and interpretation might flow from stray comments by the reporters and those they interview about what ought to be done to solve the problem

+Mass communication's power allows media consume to share the materials we are reading and listening to with million of people. Consumers around the world saw Twillight in theaters within a few months of its release and joined in the media craze surrounding it.

 

How do the Mass media influence Culture?

When we use the term we re broadly about ways of life that are passed on to members of a society through time and that keep the society together we typically use the word society to refer to large numbers of individual groups and ornagznizations that live in the same general area and consider themselves connected to one another target the sharing of a culture.

What is shared includes learning behaviors, beliefs and values. A culture lays out guidelines about who belongs to the society and what rules apply to them It provides guideposts about where and what to learn where and how to work, how to eat and sleep it tell us how we should act toward family members, friends and strangers and much much more in other words a culture helps us make sense of ourselves and our place in the world

A culture provides people with ideas about the kinds of arguments concerning particular subjects that are acceptable. In American culture People would likely feel that on certain topics vegeterainsism, for example) all sorts of positions are acceptable. Whereas on other topics (cannibalism incest) the range of acceptable view is much narrower, Moreover, American culture allows for the existence of groups with habits that many people consider odd and unusual but not threatening to the most general way of life. Such group lifestyle is called subcultures the Amish of Pennsylvania who live without modern applications at home represents such a subculture as do Catholic monks who lead a secluded existence devoted to God.

For better or worse it is not always easy to find reict evidence of who belong and what the rules are by simply looking around. The Mass media allow us to view clearly the ideas that people have about their broad culture connections with other, and where they stand in the larger society. when mass median encourage huge numbers of people who are dispersed and unrelated to share the same materials they are focus people who are dispersed people's and unrelated to share the same materials they are focusing people’s attention on what is culturally important to think about and to talk and argue with other about. IN other words mass media create people’s common lived experiences. A sense of the common culture and the varieties of subcultures acceptable to it.

The mass media present ideas of the culture in three broad and related ways : they help us identify and discuss the codes of acceptable behavior within our society. Learn what and who counts in our world and why and determine that others think of us and what people like us think of others Let’s look at each of the ways separately.

IDENFITYING AND DISCUSSING CODES OF ACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOR A Culture provides Its people with notions about how to approach life’s decisions, from waking to sleeping It also gives people ideas about the arguments concerning all these subjects that are acceptable. IF you think about the mass media from his standpoint, you will realize that this is exactly what they do. Newspapers continually give us a look at how government works. As do internet sites such as WOnkette and Huffington Post TV’s CSI series act out behavior the police consider unacceptable and open up issue in which the  rules of police Criminal behavior are contested or unclear Magazine articles provide ideas and a range of arguments about what looks attractive and how to toward the opposite sex. We may personally disagree with many of these ideas. At the SametimeWe may well realize that these ideas are shared and possibly broadly in society

LEARNING WHAT AND WHO COUNTS IN OUR WORLD AND WHY

Mass media tell us who is famous from movie stars to scientists and give us reasons why they define the leaders to watch from the US President to religious ministers.

News reports tell us who these people are in “real life” Fictional presentations such as books, movies and TV dramas may tell us what they or people to like them do and are like Many of the Presentations are angrily critical or bitingly satirical; American culture allows for this sort of argumentation. Thought critical presentations or heroic ones, though, mass media presentations offer members of the society a sense of those qualities that we ought to expect in good leaders.

Fiction often shows us what leaders ought to be like what values count in the society Actor Denzel Washing ton excels at playing law enforcement officers or other social protectors who are continuous smart, loyal persevering strong and handsome think for example of the movies <Dejavu, Inside man, and The story of Eli>sometimes mass media discussions of fiction and nonfiction merge in curious ways. During the election of 2000. For example, Several mass media commendation noted that President Bratelett of the then popular West Wing TV drama would be a better choice than any of the real candidates because of his better leadership qualities.

DETERMINING WHAT OTHER THINK OF US AND WHAT PEOPLE LIE US THINK OF OTHERS Am I leadership material? Am I good looking? Am I more or less religious than most people? Is what I like to eat what most people cluster? Mass media allow us and sometimes even encourage us to ask questions such s these. When we read newspapers, listen to the radio or watch TV We can’t help but compare ourselves to the portrayals these media present.

Sometimes we may shrug the comparisons off with the clear conviction that we simply don’t care if we are different from people who are famous or considered In other times we might feel that we ought to more in tune with what’s going on.

This may lead us to buy the world is like outside our direct reach and try to figure out how we fit in.

At the same time that the mass media get us wondering how we fit in they may also encourage feeling of connection with people whom we have never met News caster. text book and even advertisements tell us that we are part of nation that (22p) extends far beyond what we can see We may perceive that sense of connection differently depending on our personal interests We may feel a bond of sympathy with people in a U.S City that the news shows ravaged by floods. We may feel linked to people thousands of miles away who a website tells us share our political opinions .We may feel camaraderie with Super Bowl viewers around the country especially those rooting for the team we are supporting.

Similarly, we may feel disconnected from people and nations that mass media tell us have belief systems that we do not share. U.S news and entertainment are filled with portrayals of nations. Individuals and types of individuals who we are told. Does communist and Islamic extremist suggests threats to an American sense of decency. When may media attach these labels to countries or individuals we may well see them as enemies of our way of life. Unless we have p personal reasons not to believe the media portrays

Criticisms of Mass media’s influence on culture some social observers have been critical of the way mass media have used their power as reflectors and creator of culture. One criticism is that mass media present unfortunate prejudices about the world by systematically using stereo types predictable depictions that reflect and sometimes create cultural prejudices and political ideologies. Beliefs about who should hold the greatest power within a culture A third criticism. Related to the first two is that the mass media’s cultural presentations encourage political and economic manipulation of their audiences.

Criticisms such as these have made people think deeply about the role that mass media play in American culture these criticisms do have their weaknesses pints. Some might note that it is too simplistic to say that mass media detract from the quality of American culture. Different parts of the US populations use the MASS media differently and as a result may confront different kinds of images. Related to this point is the idea that people bring their own personalities to the materials they read and watch they are not simply passive recipients of messages they actively interpret reshape and even reject some of them

Nevertheless the observations about stereotypes, cultural quality and political ideology should make us think about the power of mass media over our lives Many people most people at one time or another do seem to see the mass media as mirroring parts of the society and the world beyond it.

Especially parts they do not know first hand. Most people do accept what the mass media tell them in the news and even in entertainment about what and who counts in Tehri world and why Many seem to believe that the mass media’s codes of acceptable behavior accurately describe a large number of people even if the codes don’t describe their own norms, and they accept the mass media’s images as starting points for understanding where they frighten society in relation to others and their connection with or disconnection from others.

They may disagree with this image or think that they shouldn’t exist Nevertheless the media images serve as starting points for their corners about and arguments over reality over we will have more to say about critical views on the effects of media in Chapter 4.

Media Literacy

The aim of fthi book is to help you learn how to seriously examine the mass media’s role in your life and in American life the goal is not to make you cynical and distrustful of all mass media. Rather, it is to help you think in an educated manner about the (24p생략)25p/ being media literate can be satisfying and fun. For example, knowing move his theory can make watching films fascinating .

 The government can place on the media to the struggle by various interest groups to change what media do often use government leverage For many media observers being aware that the media operate within a political environment leads to the idea that this environment deeply influences.

The media content itself to them it means being aware that the ideas in the media have political implications that they are ideological

PRINCIPLE 4: The MEDIA ARE CONSTRAINED BY FORMAT Media scholar patricial altered and others note that every medium the television the movie the magazine has its own characteristic codes and conventions its own way of presenting cultural reality.

Althogut you probably haven’t thought about it is a good bet that you recognize the differences between the way these media do a thing as a report of a presidential press conference looks different. Depending on whether it was written for a newspaper or magazine presented on TV as News described on a website, blog or put together for the big screen also recognize target that mass media are simpler in some (26p) similar some of their approaches to presenting the world their organization. The world into a number of basic storytelling forms that we recognize as entertainment news, information education and advertising as a media literate person. You should ask yourself what about the format of this medium that influences the content?What about the format that limits the kind of content that is likely to be shown?

PRINCIPLE 5: AUDIENCE ARE ACTIVE RECIPIENTS OF THE MEDIA The Process of making meaning out of media is an ongoing interaction between the reader and the materials. As individual audience members, we filter, meaning throught our unique experiences: our socioeconomic status, cultural background, gender etc. However, emphasizing the input  of the individual does not take away from the broad social importance of the media. Because so many people share mass media materials in large segments of the society see the mass media as having cultural importance for the society as a whole.

PRINCIPLEE6: THE MEDIA TELL US ABOUT WHO WE ARE AS A SOCIETY

People may like what they see about their society or they may complain about it. They may want people to view media images about themselves and others or they fear that others will be influenced negatively by certain products (for example, stereotypes and violence) Even with an active audience, then mass media hold crucial importance for society’s visions of it.

A media literate person does not complain that something is biased, he or she searches out the bias, the assumptions, the values in everything that’s made throught the production, distribution, and exhibition processes.

Media Literacy Tools.

To be a critical consumer in a mediated society, you need to equip yourself with tools that enable you to distinguish between different media forms and know how to ask basic questions from the media literacy principles we discussed above follows a series of five basic categories of questions that you can use to begin to take aspect t and explore any media message.

Typically, you would apply this questioning process to a specific medium “text” that is, an identifiable, production or publication, or a part of one an episode of the Hills. An ad For Pepsi, an issue of Esquire magazine, a billboard for Burweiser beer, photos and articles about a bank robbery on the front page of a newspaper t, the super Bowl telecast, Sometimes a media “Text’can involve multiple formats.

A new animated Disney film, for example, involves not only a blockbuster movie released in thousands of theaters, but also a whole campaign of advertising and merchandising character dolls and toys, clothes, lunchboxes, as well as a website, storybooks, games and perhaps eventually, a ride in one of the Disney theme parks 27p Let’s take a look at these sill building categories one at a time. They will involve asking questions about the media. Don’t worry if you don’t feel comfortable about answering them now. You will feel much more able as you move through this book

 

CONSIDER AUTHORSHIP ASK YOUR SELF: Who created this message and why are they sending it? To explore the idea of “Authorship” in literacy is to look deeper than just knowing whose name is on the cover of a book or all the jobs in the credits of a movie Company make media texts just as buildings and highways are put together. Lead companies make the plans they call for a variety of firms to make the products and do the work, the building blocks are brought together and ordinary people get paid to do various jobs. Whether we are watching the nightly news passing a billboard on the street or reading a political campaign flyer, the media messages we experience is created, distributed and exhibited by various organizations in which individuals (and often teams of individuals) have written the words captured the images and worked the technical marvels.

Be aware too that in this creative process choices are made. If some words are spoken, others are edited out. If one picture is selected dozens may have been rejected. If an ending to a story is written one way. Other endings Amy has not explored. However, as the audience, we don’t get to see or hear the words, pictures, or endings that were rejected, We only see, hear, or read what was accepted! Rarely does anybody ever explain why certain choices were made. Rarely, too, do Creators bring up alternative ways to interpret the world we see through our media channels. It is up to us to consider the constructed nature of our media realities and when possible and important to us, to look for a variety of perspectives on the same realities.

EAVALUATE THE AUDIENCE this proposition involves two broad questions. The first is “Who are the intended targets of these media materials?” The second is “How might different people understand these media materials? The second is How might different people understand We will see, that often means deciding what types of people would want certain kinds of content and creating products designed to fit these interests. As straightforward as this idea sounds, we will see that it is really quite complex, Entire companies revolve around helping firms describe lucrative target audiences and evaluated their interests, and figure out how to reach them. Other firms make money evaluating whether the audiences that were targeted actually attended to the message. “Audience research”is, in fact, a big business that is increasingly important to all media industries from books and newspapers to the internet and video games. The more you learn about it, the more you will understand the multitude of factors that lead to the sometimes different media worlds that different people encounter.

Of course, if two people receive different media materials, say you receive a different ad from me when we visit the same website, they will necessarily understand them differently, As we will see, that kind of variation can certainly happen in the highly fragmented, targeted media world in which we live. But even if people share the same TV shows, movies or web pages, they might interpret them differently because of their different personalities or interests or other factors (Chapter 4 covers this topic in some detail. That insight leads to the second. Very different question about the audience about how people interpret media materials,. There are two about the audience, about how people interpret media materials, There are two opposing strains here. First People who live in a society and learn similar curricula in schools do share many aspects of the same culture. But, second, people at the same time experience media throught the lenses of their ethnic, religious, income, racial, gender, age, or other characteristics, So although people may experience some aspect of a move (27p) aspects of a movie, song, or TV show in similar ways, they may also interpret other aspects of the movie, song, or TV show quite differently from one another.

It’s fascinating to consider how and when such differences work and what they mean. The next time you go to a “gross out”comedy film, consider the parts where virtually everyone is laughing at the same time. What is behind that similarity in getting the home, is it the same cultural sense of what embarrassing activities are funny?Is it the collective understanding of that humor by the movie’s target age group?Is it mostly a male preoccupation with that kind of humor?Try to see who isn’t laughing in the theater when so many others find it hilarious. Also think about (28p) the kinds of people who wouldn’t go to a film like that because the entire notion is offensive (perhaps you are one of them)

As we will see the companies that produce, distribute and sponsor media materials often have certain ideas in mind about what certain audiences will share as funny, sad, repulsive, scary, and exhilarating, Even thought they contend that these notions are based on research, they may also be rooted in social stereotypes, thinking about audiences when you confront media materials will force you to dive into some of the most interesting questions about their creation and the roles they play in society.

DETEMINE THE INSTITUITIONAL PURPOSE ASE YOUR SELF: Why is this content being sent?This question flows from the previous questions about the audience, We noted that much of the world’s media were developed as moneymaking enterprises and continue to operate today as commercial business chapter 8 and 9, for example, will discuss how newspapers and magazines decide how much space they can devote to different kinds of material based on the amount and kind of advertisements they sell, What’s really being sold throught  commercial media is not just the advertised products to the audience but also the audience to the advertisers! Moreover, we will see in Chapter 16 that the sealing takes place not only throught obvious advertisements, but also target much less obvious product integrations. These are activities through which media platforms from printed magazines to television shows, to websites present goods, people and ideas as natural parts of the program, movie, or article when the production firm actually put them there for a fee

We will see in Chapter 4 that some scholars argue that examining the purpose of media content also means confronting issues of ownership and the structure and influence of media installations of society. TO them the overall “Purpose {of media content created by huge corporation has little interest in encouraging social controversy or economic challenge to their power. As a result the critics say, mainstream media material is often propaganda of the political and social status quo. But there’s also another side of the media system. Commentators have noted that the internet has become an international platform throughout which a variety of faces with hateful political and social views have easy access to powerful tools that can tell persuasive stories in favor of their anti establishment points of view. The politics in both kinds of story telling make clear the importance of knowing how to think about the institutional purposes behind the media we use to verify sources and insist on openness from the creators and sponsors of the material

 

Analyzes the content Ask yourself What values, lifestyles and points of view are represented in or omitted from this message? Because all media messages are constructed choices have to be made. Discuss inevitably reflect the values. Attitudes and points of view of the ones doing the constructing the decision about a character again, gender, or race, mixed in with the lifestyle, s attitudes and behaviors that they portayed the selection of setting (urban, rural, affluent, poor) and the actions and reactions in the plot are just some of the ways that values become embedded in a TV Show a movie or an ad. As we will discuss in Chapter2, Even the news has embedded values in the decisions made about what stories go first, how long they are what kinds of pictures are chosen, and so on.

Our discussion of scholarly media research in Chapter 4 will provide you with a variety of tools for analyzing content, There as well as trhoguthout this book. We will address two major compilations that many people have about the widespread mass media less popular or new ideas can have a hard time getting aired.

Especially if they challenge long standing assumptions or commonly accepted beliefs, and unless challenged old assumptions can create and perpetuate stereotypes.

Thus, further limiting our understanding and appreciation of the world and the many possibilities of human life. If we have the skills to question and racially identify both overt and latent values in a mediated presentation, whether from the news, entertainment or now, especially the internet we are likely to be much more astute in our evaluation of the materials and thinking about what views of the world it might be presented to its audiences.

IDENTIFY THE CREATIVE TECHNIQUES Ask yourself What creative techniques are being used to attract my attention? This question relates partly to the need to identify the ways the media materials provide clues to their institutional purpose and choices made. You should think about how a message is constructed to connect with its intended audience the creative components that are used in putting it together words, still images, moving images, camera angle, music, color, movement, and many more, Apart from the issue of targeting, understanding the creative techniques of mass media will enhance your appreciation of the artistry involved.

All forms of communication, whether magazine covers, advertisements, or horror movies depend on a kind of creative.

Language, for example, use of different colors creates different feelings camera close ups often convey intimacy scary music heightens fear.

 As we will see learning the history of the medium involves learning the ways that the companies have organized words and images to draw and captivate audiences Go beyond what you learn here to immerse.

 Yourself in the creative languages of media that you love, whether they are comic books, romance novels hip hop recordings cowboy films daily newspapers sci-fi video games or other elements of media culture. What you learn will undoubtedly be fascinating and it will make your everyday interaction with those media extremely interesting

 

 


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